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Overview

The chemical reactions involved in metabolism are known as metabolic reactions or biochemical reactions. Biodiversity is a variation of all life forms. It is a measure of the health of biological systems. More diversity means that a system is healthy. 

Reproduction can be defined as a natural process in which an organism gives rise to young offspring similar to itself. Biodiversity refers to the variety of living beings present in a specific region. There is a different part of Biology called Taxonomy which identifies, names, and classifies different organisms present on the earth.

The chemical reactions involved in metabolism are known as metabolic reactions or biochemical reactions. Biodiversity is a variation of all life forms. It is a measure of the health of biological systems. More diversity means that a system is healthy.  

Reproduction can be defined as a natural process in which an organism gives rise to young offspring like itself. Biodiversity refers to the variety of living beings present in a specific region. There is a different part of Biology called Taxonomy which finds, names, and classifies different organisms present on the earth. 

Attribute Of Living Organism 

Fundamental Category of Species 

A variety of living organisms live on our planet, ranging in size, shape, habitat, nutrition, reproduction, and so on. These animals from the Kingdom Animal are classified by their physical features and habitats into different orders and classes. 

The habitats of animals can include water, land, deserts, forests, grasslands, ice, deserts, forests, and grasslands. Cells are the basic building blocks for all organisms. 

One of the most important characteristics of living organisms are cells, which are the building blocks of life. Cells are the structural units of life that carry out specific tasks. These cells form tissues. 

Everywhere on earth is home to a diversity of living organisms. The warm and humid regions of the earth are highly varied and are referred to as the mega biodiversity zone. World biodiversity is concentrated in 12 countries. This includes India. 

A person's DNA is unique. Humans look different due to factors such as their height, complexion, etc. Zebras are not so different from horses or fish. 

Why is classification of organisms Needed? 

The huge diversity in living organisms makes it extremely difficult to study so many of them one by one. Thus, the process of classification developed to help in studying the organisms. 

The interrelationships between organisms can be studied with it. 

It aids in understanding how organisms evolve over time. 

This is the basis for classifying 

This chapter explains in detail the principles of classification of living organisms in detail. 

An organism is classified based on whether it is unicellular or multicellular based on the number of cells it has. Multicellular organisms have more than one cell, while unicellular organisms have just one. 

The mode of nutrition of an organism is based on whether it is an autotroph or heterotroph. Organisms that are autotrophs produce their own food. Photosynthesis is eased by all green plants. 

Organisms are classified according to whether they have a nucleus or not, based on whether they are prokaryotes or eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the nucleus of the cells is not clearly defined. The nucleus of eukaryotes is well defined. 

System of Classification 

The classification of living organisms plays a significant role in their diversity. They are classified into various groups.  

Two-kingdom classifiers divide organisms, like plants and animals, into two groups. 


Basic Requirement

  • Class 11 Student

Skills Covered

  • Attribute Of Living Organism

  • Fundamental Category Of Species

Expert Review

H. Whittaker classified organisms into five kingdoms basaed on his classification: 

  • Monera  
  • Protista 
  • Fungi 
  • Plantae 
  • Animalia. 

Five Group Classification 

Monera 

  • Nuclear materials are not bound to membranes in Monera, because they are prokaryotes. 
  • Both autotrophs and heterotrophs can exist in them. 
  • This kingdom holds only unicellular organisms. 
  • It is possible that they do not have a cell wall. 
  • Examples- Bacteria, blue green algae, mycoplasma 

Protista 

  • Protists can be either autotrophic or heterotrophic. 
  • Eukaryotes belong to this group. 
  • All organisms are unicellular. 
  • Locomotion is helped by cilia or pseudopodia in some organisms. 
  • A few examples are Amoeba, Paramecium, and Euglena. 

Fungi 

  • Heterotrophic fungi have chitin-based cell walls. 
  • Most fungi are unicellular, but many organisms can become multicellular if they reach a certain stage of development. 
  • Saprophytes feed on decaying organic materials, which is how they obtain their nutrition. 
  • In fungi, long filaments called hyphae are connected by a network called mycelium. 
  • Rhizopus, yeast, etc. 

Plantae 

  • Multicellular organisms are plants. 
  • They own a cell wall and are eukaryotes. 
  • Photosynthesis is carried out by chlorophyll, an autotroph. 
  • Their bodies are highly differentiated in tissue and have specialized organs. 
  • Examples- trees, plants 

Animalia 

  • Multicellular organisms are animals. 
  • Eukaryotes belong to this category 
  • Their metabolism is heterotrophic 
  • The cell wall is missing. 
  • Fish, insects, humans, animals, birds are examples. 

Kingdom classification

The Plant Kingdom (kingdom plantae)

Plants play a significant role in the study of diversity in living organisms. About 300,000 different plant species make up the plantae kingdom in Robert Whittaker's classification kingdom model. Being the source of food for all other living creatures on our planet, the kingdom is one of the most important ones. Trees, shrubs, aquatic plants, desert plants, and flowering and non-flowering plants are included in this group. 

Using the following characteristics, the plant kingdom is divided into 5 divisions:  

Thallophyte 

  • The body of the plant is a simple thallus. 
  • Roots, stems, and leaves do not differentiate the plant body. 
  • Algae are generally called green algae. 
  • Water is the main habitat. 
  • Examples- Spirogyra, Chara, volvox 

Bryophyta

  • The plant body is divided into stems and leaves. 
  • There is no vascular tissue present. 
  • Spores handle reproduction. 
  • Amphibious plants require water to live and are also called aquatic plants. 
  • Plants like Marsilea and ferns are examples. 

Pteridophyte 

  • With the presence of a vascular tissue, the body is divided into stems, leaves, and roots. 
  • Since they do not bear seeds, they are called cryptograms. 
  • Spores are used for reproduction. 
  • Examples include ferns, horsetails, etc. 

Gymnosperms 

  • Their body parts are differentiated. 
  • 'Gynos' means naked, and 'sperm' means seed, therefore they produce naked seeds. 
  • Perennials. 
  • Deodar, pine, and Cycas are examples 

Angiosperms-  

  • They are covered with seeds. 
  • As flowers are specialized reproductive organs, they are also called flower-bearing plants. 
  • Angiosperms can also be divided into two more groups, namely:  
  • Monocotyledonous means that a seed has only one leaf. Examples include wheat and rice. 
  • Dicotyledonous seeds have two cotyledons. Mango, mustard, etc. 

The Animal Kingdom (kingdom animalia)

Animal diversity is also included in the study of living organisms. Across all kingdoms, there is a maximum number of species in the animal kingdom. 

As the animal kingdom is so large, it is further divided into the following categories:

Porifera 

  • The body is not divided into tissues 
  • The outer skeleton of the body is hard. 
  • Sponge is a common name for them. 
  • Marine animals. 
  • Sycon, Euple Tella, spoonbill, etc. 

Coelenterate 

  • They have a single opening in their body in the form of a coelom. 
  • Moving between places is possible for them. 
  • Two layers of cells make up the body wall. 
  • Hydra and jellyfish are examples

Platyhelminthes 

  • Additionally, they are known as flatworms. 
  • From top to bottom, their body is flattened 
  • Parasites. 
  • The coelom is not present. 
  • Liver fluke is an example 

Nemathelminths 

  • They have bilateral symmetry in their bodies 
  • Triploblastic 
  • Shells cover their bodies. 
  • Animals have a cylindrical shape. 
  • Roundworms and pinworms are examples

Annelida-  

  • The true cavity of the body 
  • Each segment of the body has a set of organs that line up one after another. 
  • Earthworms, leeches, etc. 

Echinodermata 

  • The body is symmetrical. 
  • Spine's cover most of the body. 
  • Skeletons are composed of calcium carbonate. 
  • Some examples include starfish and sea urchins. 

Arthropoda 

Their appendages are joined 

It is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom, including about 80% of all species 

There is no obstruction in the circulatory system. 

Examples include spiders, prawns, etc.


Mollusca 

  • There is no obstruction in the circulatory system 
  • Soft bodies are characteristic of animals 
  • There is an organ like a kidney that excretes waste. 
  • Examples include snails, octopuses, etc. 


Protochordate

  • Thromboplastic 
  • Synchronized 
  • Notochords are present 
  • Muscle attachment 
  • There are examples of Balanoglossus and Hermania 

Chordata 

  • Notochords are present 
  • There is a dorsal nerve cord 
  • This cell type is triploblastic and coelomate. 

Pisces 

  • They are fish. 
  • Their bodies are streamlined 
  • There are paired gills 
  • Animals with cold blood

Amphibia 

  • Both land and water are available to them 
  • Three chambers make up their heart 
  • Animals that are cold-blooded 
  • There are many examples of frogs and toads, for example. 

Reptilia

  • Crawling is how they move from one place to another 
  • The skin on their bodies is hardened 
  • Except for the crocodile, which has four chambered hearts. 
  • Examples include snakes, lizards, etc. 

Aves 

  • Feathers cover their bodies 
  • Their heart has four chambers 
  • Forelimbs are changed into wings 
  • Examples- All the birds 

Mammalia 

  • Their body is coerced with hair 
  • Skin has sweat glands and sebaceous glands. 
  • Mammary glands are present in females 
  • Examples- Humans, Lion etc. 

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Course creator


                                 Madhu V

Madhu V

I Am a School Teacher with Teaching Experience in Biology subject More than 20 years. Also, I have done M.SC And B.Ed. CIE Training from London, the UK in Biology.