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 Genetic evolution includes the evolution of genome structure, adaptation and speciation, and changes that result from selection within a population. The total genes and their alleles in a population remain constant. Sometimes the change in allele frequency is so different in the new sample of the population that they become a different species.

The founder effect is the result of the drifted population becoming founders. Comparative anatomy, fossils, and comparative biochemistry provide evidence for evolution. Developmental Evolutionary genetics is the total of populace genetics and evolution. 

Basic Requirement

  • Class 12 Student

Skills Covered

  • Characteristics Of Inheritance

  • Chromosomal Theory Of Inheritance

Expert Review

Notes on Genetics and Evolution


The branch of science that studies genes, genetic variations, and heredity in organisms are genetics. DNA makes up genes, which are a type of genetic instructions. By following these instructions, molecules are made and chemical reactions are controlled. By following these instructions, molecules are made and chemical reactions are controlled.


Genetic variation is the process of heritable changes in the population of organisms over time. Genes are copied during reproduction and passed on to the offspring according to their expression. Heritable traits that contribute to survival and reproduction become more prevalent, while those that are harmful become rare.

Genetics and evolutionary theory

The study of evolutionary genetics is concerned with how genetics lead to a change in the evolutionary process. This includes studying how the genome changes over time. It is a combination of population genetics and evolution.

The process of genome evolution is the process by which the size and structure of a genome evolve over time. Mutation, transduction, and horizontal gene transfer all contribute to the evolution of the prokaryotic genome.

What is Evolutionary Genetics?

An evolutionary geneticist studies how genetic variation contributes to evolutionary change. A genetic basis for adaptation and speciation as well as genetic changes associated with population selection are included in this area. An evolutionary genetics is a combination of genetics and evolution.

Evolution of Structure of Genome

The process of genome evolution is the process by which the genome's structure and size change over time. Evolution of the prokaryotic genome occurs through mutation, horizontal gene transfer, and transduction. Every change in the nucleotide sequence of the body is a mutation. Transplantation of genetic material horizontally (from donor to recipient) differs from the vertical method (from parent to offspring).

Mechanism of Genome Evolution

Gene Duplication

DNA is duplicated in this process. The process involves recombination, aneuploidy, transposition, polyploidy, and error in DNA replication.

Transposable elements

A region of DNA that can be inserted anywhere in the genome. An example is the Ty element in Drosophila. The most common transposable element in humans is the Alu sequence.


The genome is altered by spontaneous mutations. As a result of a frameshift mutation, the nucleotide sequences change. Prokaryotes are more prone to frameshift mutations.

Exon Shuffling

Two exons from different genes come together during this process. This results in the formation of new genes. New genes are thus created in the genome.

Remember these terms 

The exon is the part of the gene responsible for coding, so it is a part of gene expression. RNA messengers are composed only of exons, which are then translated into proteins. 

In aneuploidy, chromosome numbers are altered or lost. Humans usually have 46 chromosomes, but the number can be as high as 45 or 47. 

 Polyploidy is the presence of more than two sets of chromosomes. 

A transposition occurs when a chromosome segment moves to a new location.

You will get a detailed understanding of each topic in Genetics Class 12 throughout this course.

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Course creator

                                 Leena S

Leena S

I Am a Trained Teacher having more than 10 years of experience in Biology subject also I deal with school operation and Management. I have done masters In Biotechnology.