Life processes Constantly show the elements of support and repair in living organisms Examples-Digestion, Respiration, Nutrition and so on.Total course Fee
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The processes that are fundamental for a organism to stay alive. The process in which a life form takes in food, uses it to get energy, for development, repair and maintenance, and so on and discharges the waste materials from the body.
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Take a moment to read the following points from the Chapter:
Living organisms constantly exhibit maintenance and repair functions
Some examples are digestion, respiration, and circulation.
Ingestion of food and digestion in the body is the process of obtaining nutrients from the environment.
There are two types of organisms: autotrophs (self-sufficient for food) and heterotrophs (dependent on others for food).
Photosynthesis is the process of making food using light. "Photo" refers to light and "synthesis" refers to production. Light is used to produce food.
The equation for photosynthesis -
6CO2+6H2O give C6H12O6+6O2
Photosynthetic events are as follows: Absorption of light energy chlorophyll, which is a green pigment, provides energy for reaction activation. In addition, water is split into hydrogen and oxygen, resulting in the synthesis of ATP and NADPH2, as well as the reduction of CO2 to carbohydrates.
Animals and plants take energy from them by using them as food.
There are mainly three types of parasites: holozoic, parasitic, and saprophytic.
Ingested nutrients are mechanically and chemically reduced to produce energy which can be utilized.
An individual's digestive system is made up of a long alimentary canal which includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
Assistance organs: pancreas, liver
Nutrition in humans:
1) Under the tongue, salivary glands secrete digestive enzymes like salivary amylase, which break starch down into sugar. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth.
2) The tongue aids in chewing, moistening, rolling, and swallowing food.
3) Food from the mouth passes through the oesophagus, which is the food pipe from the mouth to the stomach when the walls of the oesophagus move (peristalsis).
4) The stomach mixes different digestive juices with the food thus received.
5) The inner lining of the stomach secretes:
6) Mucus - protects the stomach lining against acid erosion.
7) The acidic nature of hydrochloric acid dissolves bits of food and creates an acidic environment.
8) Digestive juices - break down protein into simpler compounds.
9) Eventually, food from the stomach moves into the small intestine.
10) The small intestine is the longest part (about 7.5 m long) of the alimentary canal. It is the site where carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested. It receives digestive juices from two different glands: the liver and the pancreas.
- Bile is secreted by the liver, which is the largest gland in the body. The gallbladder stores bile juice, which is essential for digesting fats.
- All food components are digested in the pancreas by enzymes.
The digestive system is composed of the gastrointestinal tract and its associated glands.
The breakdown of organic substances releases energy and is controlled by enzymes. There are two types: aerobic and anaerobic.
1) The oxidation of food materials by oxygen
2) It produces 36 ATP
3) Cellular respiration consists of the following steps:
The first step is the breakdown of glucose (6C) into pyruvates (3C) in the cytoplasm
Step two- Pyruvate is then broken down into CO2 and water in the mitochondria, where energy is formed in the form of ATP.
1) Nutrients are oxidized without using up oxygen molecules
2) The enzyme produces two ATPs.
3) A glycolysis in the cytoplasm produces 2 pyruvate as the first step
4) As the second step, pyruvic acid is broken down into ethanol, water, and energy (in yeast) and lactic acid and energy (in muscle cells).
1) This organ consists of the nose, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
2) The bronchioles then divide into many alveoli, which are sites of gaseous exchange.
3) O2 is then transported to cells throughout the body by alveolar blood vessels.
4) Carbon dioxide and oxygen are transported through the blood by the hemoglobin pigment.
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