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The acidic and essential nature of salts more often than not relies upon the acid and base from which the salt advanced in a neutralization reaction. Acidic and basic solutions in water conduct electricity because they produce hydrogen and hydroxide ions, respectively. Mixing concentrated acids or bases with water is a highly exothermic process. Acids, Bases and Salts Indicators Indicators help in identifying acidic or essential nature of a substance. Acidic substances are usually very sour. Aside from hydrochloric corrosive, there are numerous different kinds of acids around us.

Basic Requirement

  • Class 10 Student

Skills Covered

  • Bases - General Properties

  • Classification Of Salts And Usage

Expert Review

What makes everything taste so different? Why do lemons taste tangy while mangos taste sweet? The reason for this is the different percentages of acids, bases, and salts in their chemical composition. Let's explore how these can be classified, understanding the concepts by Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis, etc.

Experimental Definitions

An experimental test of an acid, base or salt solution in water was the traditional way to characterize them. Acid tastes sour, turns blue litmus red and neutralizes bases. A base is a substance whose aqueous solution tastes bitter, turns red litmus blue, or neutralizes acids.

Litmus is not affected by salt's aqueous solution because salt is a neutral substance. Faraday defined electrolytes as acids, bases, and salts. Liebig also proposed that acids are compounds containing hydrogen that can be replaced by metals.


Acidity is one of the characteristics of acids. Acidic substances are typically very sour. There are a number of other acids around us besides hydrochloric acid. Ascorbic and citric acids are present in citrus fruits like lemons and oranges, while tartaric acid is found in tamarind paste.

The words 'acid' and 'acidity' are derived from the Latin word 'acidus,' meaning sour. In an acid, a blue litmus paper turns red, but a red litmus paper does not change color. When acids react with metals, they can also liberate dihydrogen.


Red litmus paper turns blue, while blue litmus paper stays blue. Both taste bitter and feel soapy. Another common example of a base is sodium bicarbonate, which is used in cooking and household bleach.


Sodium nitrate, barium sulfate and sodium chloride are other common salts. Salt, or sodium chloride, is a product of the reaction between hydrochloric acid (acid) and sodium hydroxide (base). A solid sodium chloride is a cluster of positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged chloride ions held together by electrostatic forces.

Dielectric constants of media have an inverse relationship with electrostatic forces between opposite charges. Alternatively, we can say that when two compounds with acidity and basicity in common, they may yield salts.

Water has a dielectric constant of 80, making it a universal solvent. Due to its dielectric constant, water permits the ions to move freely in solution when sodium chloride is dissolved in it. Hydration with water molecules also makes them well-separated.

Ionization And Dissociation

During the dissolution of a solid ionic compound in water, ions are separated from the ionic crystal. Ionization, on the other hand, occurs when a neutral molecule breaks into charged ions when dissolved in a solution. Ionization depends on the strength of the bonds between ions and the extent of solvation of the ions.

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Course creator

                                 Reshma B

Reshma B

I Am a Senior Trainer with Teaching Experience More than 15 years, and also I am specialised in Maths and Science subject.